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Background: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the standard of treatment for large renal stones. Intra-abdominal hypertension during PCNL due to extravasation of irrigation fluid in the peritoneal cavity may lead to organ dysfunction and may be fatal if not intervened on time.
Case Presentation: We report a case of abdominal compartment syndrome as a complication of PCNL. After a timely diagnosis, the case was managed successfully with percutaneous intraperitoneal drainage.
Conclusion: It is imperative to be aware of raised intra-abdominal pressure during PCNL to prevent abdominal compartment syndrome and to avoid its fatal outcome.